Steve Archer, PhD

Senior Research Scientist
Bigelow Analytical Services Director
Phone: +1 (207) 315-2567, ext. 314

For media inquiries, please contact


Ph.D. Marine Biology and Physiology, University of St. Andrews, UK

B.Sc. Marine Biology, Liverpool University, UK

Research Interests

Stephen Archer is a biogeochemist with a broad interest in the processes that influence the exchange of gases between ocean and atmosphere, and the production and trophic transfer of key compounds within pelagic foodwebs. Despite occurring at very low concentrations, trace gases including sulfur, nitrogen and halogen-containing compounds, are sufficiently reactive to influence atmospheric chemistry and therefore climate. Archer's research aims to identify the key processes that dictate the emission of these gases and to understand how their production may alter in the face of environmental change. By focussing on the synthesis and fate of specific compounds we learn a great deal about the processes that govern not only trace gas production but also the transfer of elements and key nutrients within the pelagic ecosysem.



  • Hopkins FE, Nightingale PD, Stephens JA, Moore CM, Richier S, Cripps GL, Archer SD. (2020) Dimethylsulfide (DMS) production in polar oceans may be resilient to ocean acidification. Biogeosciences. 17: 163–186.


  • Grasso I, Archer SD, Burnell C, Tupper B, Rauschenberg C, Kanwit K, Record N. (2019) The hunt for red tides: Deep learning algorithm forecasts shellfish toxicity at site scales in coastal Maine. Ecosphere, 10(12): e02960.10.1002/ecs2.2960
  • Goode AG, Fields DM, Archer SD, Martínez JM. (2019). Physiological responses of Oxyrrhis marina to a diet of virally infected Emiliania huxleyi PeerJ. 7: e6722.
  • Archer SD, Posman KM, DeStefano J, Harrison A, Ledina A, Cheff EM, Witt DM. (2019). A fluorescent approach to determine bromoperoxidase activity in microalgae and planktonic communities using aminophenyl fluorescein. Frontiers in Marine Science 6: Article 68.


  • Cree CHL, Airs R, Archer SD, Fitzsimons MF (2018) Measurement of methylamines in seawater using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Limnology and Ocenaography: Methods
  • Archer SD, Suffrian K, Posman K, Bach LT, Matrai PA, Countway PD, Ludwig A, Riebesell U. (2018) Processes that drive decreased dimethyl sulfide production in response to ocean acidification in subtropical waters. Frontiers in Marine Science 5: Article 245.
  • Archer SD, Stefels J, Airs RL, Lawton T, Smyth TJ, Rees AP, Geider RJ. (2018) Limitation of DMSP synthesis at high irradiance in natural phytoplankton communities. Limnology and Oceanography 63: 227-242.


  • Taucher J, Bach LT, Boxhammer T, Nauendorf A, The Gran Canaria KOSMOS Consortium, Achterberg EP, ... & Haunost M. (2017). Influence of ocean acidification and deep water upwelling on oligotrophic plankton communities in the subtropical North Atlantic: insights from an in situ mesocosm study. Frontiers in Marine Science 4: Article 85.


  • Gilg IC, Archer SD, Floge SA, Fields DM, Vermont AI, Leavitt AH, Wilson WH, Martínez Martínez J. (2016) Differential gene expression is tied to photochemical efficiency reduction in virally-infected Emiliania huxleyi. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 555: 13-27.
  • Vermont AI, Martínez Martínez J, Waller JD, Gilg IC, Leavitt AH, Floge SA, Archer SD, Wilson WH, Fields DM. (2016) Virus infection of Emiliania huxleyi deters grazing by the copepod Acartia tonsa. Journal of Plankton Research 38: 1194–1205.


  • Andersson, AJ, Kline DI, Edmunds PJ, Archer SD, Bednaršek N, Carpenter RC, Chadsey M. Goldstein P, Grottoli AG, Hurst TP, King AL, Kübler JE, Kuffner IB, MacKey KRM, Paytan A, Menge BA, Riebesell U, Schnetzer A, Warner ME, Zimmerman RC (2015) Understanding ocean acidification impacts on organismal to ecological scales. Oceanography 28 (2) June.


  • Hopkins FE, Archer SD (2014) Consistent increase in dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in response to high CO2 in five shipboard bioassays from contrasting NW European waters. Biogeosciences 11, 4925-4940


  • Yang, M, Archer SD, Blomquist BW, Ho DT, Lance VP, Torres RJ. (2013) Lagrangian evolution of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the Southern Ocean – the effects of vertical mixing and biological community shift. Journal of Geophysical Research. doi: 10.1002/2013JC009329.
  • Six K., Kloster S, Ilyina T, Archer SD, Zhang K, E. Maier-Ernst. (2013) Amplified global warming by altered marine sulfur emissions induced by ocean acidification, Nature Climate Change 3, 975-978. doi:10.1038/nclimate1981.
  • Ziska F, Quack B, Abrahamsson K, Archer SD, Atlas E, Bell T, Butler JH, Carpenter LJ, Jones CE, Harris NRP, Hepach H, Heumann KG, Hughes C, Kuss J, Krüger K, Liss P, Moore RM, Orlikowska A, Raimund S, Reeves CE, Reifenhäuser W, Robinson AD, Schall C, Tanhua T, Tegtmeier S, Turner S, Wang L, Wallace D, Williams J, Yamamoto H, Yvon-Lewis S, Yokouchi Y (2013) Global sea-to-air flux climatology for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide. Atmos. Chem. Phys.13, 8915-8934.
  • Archer SD, Hopkins FE, Kimmance SA, Stephens J, Hopkins FE, Bellerby RGJ, Schulz KG, Piontek J, Engel A (2013) Contrasting response of DMS and DMSP to ocean acidification in Arctic waters. Biogeosciences Discussions 9: 12803-12843
  • Hopkins FE, Kimmance SA, Stephens J, Bellerby RGJ, Brussard CPD, Czerny J, Schulz KG, Archer SD (2013) Response of halocarbons to ocean acidification in the Arctic. Biogeosciences Discussions 9: 8199-8239


  • Carpenter LJ, Archer SD, Beale R (2012) Ocean-atmosphere trace gas exchange. Critical Review. Chemistry Society Reviews. 41: 6473-6506. DOI:10.1039/c2cs35121h
  • Polimene L, Archer SD, Butenschön M, Allen JI (2012) A mechanistic explanation for the Sargasso Sea DMS “summer paradox”. Biogeochemistry 110: 243-255: doi: 10.1007/s10533-011-9674-z
  • Lewis, ND, Breckels MN, Archer SD, Morozov A, Pitchford JW, Steinke M, Codling E (2012) Grazing-induced production of DMS can stabilize food-web dynamics and promote the formation of phytoplankton blooms in a multitrophic plankton model. Biogeochemistry 110: 303-313. doi: 10.1007/s10533-011-9649-0
  • Bell TG, Malin G, Lee GA, Stefels J, Archer SD, Steinke M, Matrai P (2012) Global DMS Data Inter-Comparability. Biogeochemistry 110: 147-161. doi:10.1007/s10533-011-9662-3


  • Salter ME, Upstill-Goddard RC, Nightingale PD, Archer SD, Blomquist B, Ho DT, Schlosser P, Yang M (2011) Impact of an artificial surfactant release on air--sea gas fluxes during DOGEE II. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 116,C11016, doi:10.1029/2011JC007023
  • Yang, M, Blomquist BW, Fairall CW, Archer SD, Huebert BJ (2011) Air-sea exchange of dimethylsulfide in the Southern Ocean: Measurements from SO GasEx compared to temperate and tropical regions. Journal of Geophysical Research 116: C00F05, doi:10.1029/2010JC006526
  • Archer SD, Tarran GA, Stephens JA, Butcher LJ, Kimmance SA (2011) Combining flow sorting with gas chromatography to determine phytoplankton group-specific intracellular content of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP). Aquatic Microbial Ecology 62 (2) 109-121 10.3354/ame01464
  • Archer SD, Safi K, Hall J, Law CS, Cummings D, Harvey M, (2011) Grazing suppression of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) accumulation in ironfertilised, sub-Antarctic waters. Deep-Sea Research II. 58: 839:850. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.022
  • Harvey MJ, Law CS, Smith MJ, Hall JA, Abraham ER, Stevens CL, Hadfield MG, Ho DT, Ward B, Archer SD, et al. (2011) The SOLAS air-sea gas experiment (SAGE) 2004. (2011) Deep-Sea Research. II. 58: 753-763. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.015
  • Jones CE, Andrews SJ, Carpenter LJ, Hogan C, Hopkins FE, Laube JC, Robinson AD, Spain TG, Archer SD, Harris NRP, Nightingale PD, O’Doherty SJ, Oram DE, Pyle JA, Hall HB (2011) Results from the first national UK inter-laboratory calibration for very short-lived halocarbons. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 4(5): 865-874. doi: 10.5194/amt-4-865-2011
  • Breckels, MN, Roberts EC, Archer SD, Malin G, Steinke M (2011) The role of dissolved infochemicals in mediating predator–prey interactions in the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Journal of Plankton Research. 33(4):629-639. doi:10.1093/plankt/fbq114


  • Airs RL, Archer SD (2010) Analysis of glycine betaine and choline in seawater particulates by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Limnology and Oceanography Methods 8: 499-506
  • Le Clainche, Y., et al. (2010), A first appraisal of prognostic ocean DMS models and prospects for their use in climate models, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB3021, doi: 10.1029/2009GB003721.
  • Archer SD, Ragni M, Webster R, Airs RL, Geider RJ (2010) Dimethyl sulfoniopropionate and dimethyl sulfide production in response to photoinhibition in Emiliania huxleyi. Limnology and Oceanography 55 (4) 1579-1589
  • Huebert BJ, Blomquist BW, Yang MX, Archer SD, Nightingale PD, Yelland MJ, Stephens J, Pascal RW, Moat BI (2010) Linearity of DMS transfer coefficient with both friction velocity and wind speed in the moderate wind speed range. Geophysical Research Letters 37 L01605, doi:10.1029/2009GL041203
  • Breckels MN, Boakes DE, Codling EA, Malin G, Archer SD, Steinke M (2010) Modelling the concentration of exuded dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) in the boundary layer surrounding phytoplankton cells. Journal of Plankton Research 32:253-257


  • Archer SD, Cummings DG, Llewellyn CA, Fishwick JR (2009) Phytoplankton taxa, irradiance and nutrient availability determine the seasonal cycle of DMSP in temperate shelf seas. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 394:111-124
  • Brooks IM, Yelland MJ, Upstill-Goddard RC, Nightingale PD, Archer S, et al. (2009a) PHYSICAL EXCHANGES AT THE AIR-SES INTERFACE UK-SOLAS Field Measurements. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90:629-+
  • Brooks IM, Yelland MJ, Upstill-Goddard RC, Nightingale PD, Archer S, et al. (2009b) UK-SOLAS FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF AIR-SEA EXCHANGE Instrumentation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90:ES9-ES16


  • Jickells TD, Liss PS, Broadgate W, Turner S, Kettle AJ, Read J, Baker J, Cardenas LM, Carse F, Hamren-Larssen M, Spokes L, Steinke M, Thompson A, Watson A, Archer SD, Bellerby RGJ, Law CS, Nightingale PD, Liddicoat ML, Widdicombe CE, Bowie A, Gilpin LC, Moncoiffe G, Savidge G, Preston T, Hadziabdic P, Frost T, Upstill-Goddard R, Pedros-Alio C, Simo R, Jackson A, Allen A, DeGrandpre MD (2008) A Lagrangian biogeochemical study of an eddy in the Northeast Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography 76:366-398


  • Archer S (2007) Crucial uncertainties in predicting biological control of DMS emission. Environmental Chemistry 4:404-405
  • Archer SD, Goldson LE, Liddicoat MI, Cummings DG, Nightingale PD (2007) Marked seasonality in the concentrations and sea-to-air flux of volatile iodocarbon compounds in the western English Channel. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 112, C08009, doi:10.1029/2006JC003963.
  • Kimmance SA, Wilson WH, Archer SD (2007) Modified dilution technique to estimate viral versus grazing mortality of phytoplankton: limitations associated with method sensitivity in natural waters. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 49:207-222


  • Mary I, Cummings DG, Biegala IC, Burkill PH, Archer SD, Zubkov MV (2006) Seasonal dynamics of bacterioplankton community structure at a coastal station in the western English Channel. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 42:119-126
  • Allen JI, Archer SD, Blackford JC, Gilbert FJ, Taylor AH (2006) Changes in DMS production and flux in relation to decadal shifts in ocean circulation. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology 58:242-254


  • Stelfox-Widdicombe CE, Archer SD, Burkill PH, Stefels J (2004) Microzooplankton grazing in Phaeocystis and diatom-dominated waters in the southern North Sea in spring. Journal of Sea Research 51:37-51
  • Archer SD, Gilbert FJ, Allen JI, Blackford J, Nightingale PD (2004) Modelling of the seasonal patterns of dimethylsulphide production and fate during 1989 at a site in the North Sea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:765-787


  • Evans C, Archer SD, Jacquet S, Wilson WH (2003) Direct estimates of the contribution of viral lysis and microzooplankton grazing to the decline of a Micromonas spp. population. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 30:207-219
  • Archer SD, Stelfox-Widdicombe CE, Malin G, Burkill PH (2003) Is dimethyl sulphide production related to microzooplankton herbivory in the southern North Sea? Journal of Plankton Research 25:235-242


  • Simo R, Archer SD, Pedros-Alio C, Gilpin L, Stelfox-Widdicombe CE (2002) Coupled dynamics of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethylsulfide cycling and the microbial food web in surface waters of the North Atlantic. Limnology and Oceanography 47:53-61
  • Burkill PH, Archer SD, Robinson C, Nightingale PD, Groom SB, Tarran GA, Zubkov MV (2002) Dimethyl sulphide biogeochemistry within a coccolithophore bloom (DISCO): an overview. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography 49:2863-2885
  • Steinke M, Malin G, Archer SD, Burkill PH, Liss PS (2002) DMS production in a coccolithophorid bloom: evidence for the importance of dinoflagellate DMSP lyases. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 26:259-270
  • Widdicombe CE, Archer SD, Burkill PH, Widdicombe S (2002) Diversity and structure of the microplankton community during a coccolithophore bloom in the stratified northern North Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography 49:2887-2903
  • Archer SD, Gilbert FJ, Nightingale PD, Zubkov MV, Taylor AH, Smith GC, Burkill PH (2002) Transformation of dimethylsulphoniopropionate to dimethyl sulphide during summer in the North Sea with an examination of key processes via a modelling approach. Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography 49:3067-3101
  • Archer SD, Smith GC, Nightingale PD, Widdicombe CE, Tarran GA, Rees AP, Burkill PH (2002) Dynamics of particulate dimethylsulphoniopropionate during a Lagrangian experiment in the northern North Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part IiTopical Studies in Oceanography 49:2979-2999
  • Zubkov MV, Fuchs BM, Archer SD, Kiene RP, Amann R, Burkill PH (2002) Rapid turnover of dissolved DMS and DMSP by defined bacterioplankton communities in the stratified euphotic zone of the North Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography 49:3017-3038


  • Zubkov MV, Fuchs BM, Archer SD, Kiene RP, Amann R, Burkill PH (2001) Linking the composition of bacterioplankton to rapid turnover of dissolved dimethylsulphoniopropionate in an algal bloom in the North Sea. Environmental Microbiology 3:304-311
  • Archer SD, Stelfox-Widdicombe CE, Burkill PH, Malin G (2001) A dilution approach to quantify the production of dissolved dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethyl sulphide due to microzooplankton herbivory. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 23:131-145
  • Archer SD, Widdicombe CE, Tarran GA, Rees AP, Burkill PH (2001) Production and turnover of particulate dimethylsulphoniopropionate during a coccolithophore bloom in the northern North Sea. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 24:225-241
  • Archer SD, Verity PG, Stefels J (2000) Impact of microzooplankton on the progression and fate of the spring bloom in fjords of northern Norway. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 22:27-41


  • Robinson C, Archer SD, Williams PJL (1999) Microbial dynamics in coastal waters of East Antarctica: plankton production and respiration. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 180:23-36
  • Archer SD, Leakey RJG, Burkill PH, Sleigh MA (1996a) Microbial dynamics in coastal waters of East Antarctica: Herbivory by heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 139:239-255
  • Leakey RJG, Archer SD, Grey J (1996) Microbial dynamics in coastal waters of East Antarctica: Bacterial production and nanoflagellate bacterivory. Marine EcologyProgress Series 142:3-17
  • Archer SD, Leakey RJG, Burkill PH, Sleigh MA, Appleby CJ (1996b) Microbial ecology of sea ice at a coastal Antarctic site: Community composition, biomass and temporal change. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 135:179-195
  • Priddle J, Leakey RJG, Archer SD, Murphy EJ (1996) Eukaryotic microbiota in the surface waters and sea ice of the Southern Ocean: Aspects of physiology, ecology and biodiversity in a 'two-phase' ecosystem. Biodiversity and Conservation 5:1473-1504


  • Archer SD, Johnston IA (1991) Density of Cristae and Distribution of Mitochondria in the Slow Muscle-Fibers of Antarctic Fish. Physiological Zoology 64:242-258
  • Archer SD, Altringham JD, Johnston IA (1990) Scaling Effects on the Neuromuscular System, Twitch Kinetics and Morphometrics of the Cod, GadusMorhua. Marine Behaviour and Physiology 17:137-146
  • Archer SD, Johnston IA (1989) Kinematics of Labriform and Subcarangiform Swimming in the Antarctic Fish Notothenia-Neglecta. Journal of Experimental Biology 143:195-210
  • Dunn JF, Archer SD, Johnston IA (1989) Muscle-Fiber Types and Metabolism in Post-Larval and Adult Stages of Notothenioid Fish. Polar Biology 9:213-223.

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