Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences

Ocean Life, Planet Health


Balch Publications


  • Balch WM, Drapeau DT, Bowler BC, Booth ES, Lyczskowski E, Alley D (2011) The contribution of coccolithophores to the optical and inorganic carbon budgets during the Southern Ocean Gas Experiment: New evidence in support of the "Great Calcite Belt" hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans Special Issue. VOL. 116, C00F06, doi:10.1029/2011JC006941.
  • Balch W,  Poulton A., Drapeau D, Bowler B, Windecker L., and Booth. (2011) E.S. Zonal and meridional patterns of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, between 110oW and 140oW. Deep-Sea Research II. 58: 400-416.  doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.08.004.
  • Baines, S. B., B.S. Twining, S. Vogt, W.M. Balch, N. S. Fisher. (2011) Control of diatom silicification by silicic acid and iron in the eastern Equatorial Pacific.  Deep-Sea Research II. 58: 512-523.  doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.08.003.
  • Landry, M.R., Selph, K.E., Taylor, A.G., Decima, M., Balch, W.M., Bidigare, R.R.R., (2011). Phytoplankton growth, grazing and production balances in the HNLC equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Research II.   58: 524-535  doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.08.011.
  • Brzezinski, M., S.B. Baines, W.M. Balch, Charlotte Beucher,  F. Chai, R.C. Dugdale, J.W. Krause, M.R. Landry, A. Marchi, C. Measures, D.M. Nelson, A. Parker, A. Poulton, K.E. Selph, P.G. Strutton, A.G. Taylor and B.S. Twining (2011), Co-limitation of diatoms by iron and silicic acid in the equatorial Pacific, Deep-Sea Research II, 58: 493-511.  doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.08.005.


  • Painter, S.C., A.J. Poulton, J.T. Allen, R. Pidcock, and W.M. Balch (2010), The COPAS'08 expedition to the Patagonian Shelf: Physical and environmental conditions during the 2008 coccolithophore bloom. Continental Shelf Research. 30 (18), 1907-1923.  doi:10.1016/j.csr.2010.08.013
  • Balch, W.M., Bowler, B.C., Drapeau, D. T., Poulton, A., and Holligan, P.  Biominerals and the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon from the surface ocean.  (2010) Geochemical Research Letters.  37 (L22605), 1-6doi:10.1029/2010GL044640.
  • Fabry, V.J., and W.M. Balch, 2010, Direct measurements of calcification rates in planktonic organisms, in Riebesell U., Fabry V. J., Hansson L. & Gattuso J.-P. (Eds.), 2010. Guide to best practices for ocean acidification research and data reporting, 260 p. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  • Vaughn, J.M., Novotny, J.F., Balch, W.M., Vining C.L., Drapeau D.T., Booth E., Kneifel D. M.., Bell A.L.  2010. Isolation of Emiliania huxleyi viruses from the Gulf of Maine. Applied Environmental Microbiology.  58: 109-116.  doi: 10.3354/ame01375.


  • Doney , S.C., Balch, W., Fabry, V.J., Feely, R., 2009. Ocean acidification: A critical emerging problem for the ocean sciences. Oceanography 22 (4), 16-25.
  • Balch, W., Utgoff, P., 2009. Potential interactions amoung ocean acidification, coccolithophores and the optical properties of seawater. Oceanography 22 (4), 146-159.
  • Gordon, H.R, T. J. Smyth, W.M. Balch, G. C. Boynton, and G. A. Tarran, 2009. Light scattering by coccoliths detached from Emiliania Huxley. Applied Optics. 48 (31): 6059-6072.
  • Balch, W. M., D. Drapeau, B. Bowler, E. Booth, A. Plueddeman. 2009.  Chalk-ex –The fate of CaCO3 Particles in the Mixed Layer: Evolution of patch optical properties . Journal of Geophysical Research- Oceans.  2009. 114 (C07020), doi:10.1029/2008JC004902.


  • Balch, W.M. and V. Fabry.  2008 Ocean acidification: documenting its impact on calcifying phytoplankton at basin scales.  Marine Ecology Progress Series. 373: 239–247, doi: 10.3354/meps07801
  • Balch, W.M., Drapeau, D.T., Bowler, B. C., Booth, E.S., Windecker, L.A. and Ashe, A.  2008.  Space-time variability of carbon standing stocks and fixation rates in the Gulf of Maine, along the GNATS transect between Portland, ME and Yarmouth, NS.  Journal of Plankton Research. 30(2): 119-140.  doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbm097.


  • Balch, W. M., J. M. Vaughn, J.I. Goes, J. Novotny,  D. Drapeau, E. Booth, and C. Vining.  2007. Bio-optical consequences of viral infection of phytoplankton: I. Experiments with the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp.  Limnology and Oceanography.  52: 727-738.
  • Poulton, A. J., Adey, T. R., Balch, W. M. & Holligan, P. M. 2007. Relating coccolithophore calcification rates to phytoplankton community dynamics:  regional differences and implications for carbon export. Deep-Sea Research II (Chapman Calcification Conference- Special Volume). Vol. 54, no. 5-7, pp. 538-557.
  • Balch, W. M., Drapeau, D. T., Bowler, B. C. & Booth, E. 2007. Prediction of pelagic calcification rates using satellite-measurements. Deep-Sea Research II (Chapman Calcification Conference Special Volume).  Vol. 54, no. 5-7, pp. 478-495  doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.12.006.
  • Berelson, W. M., W. M. Balch, R. Najjar, R. A. Feely, C. Sabine, and K. Lee.  2007.  Relating estimates of CaCO3 production, export and dissolution in the water column to measurements of CaCO3 rain into sediment traps and dissolution on the sea floor: A revised global carbonate budget. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 21, GB1024, doi:10.1029/2006GB002803.


  • Balch, W. M., Howard Gordon, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, E. S. Booth.  2005.  Calcium carbonate measurements in the surface global ocean based on MODIS Data.  Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 110, C07001 doi:10.1029/2004JC002560.


  • Balch, W. M., D. Drapeau, B. Bowler, E. Booth, J. Goes,  A. Ashe, and J. Frye. 2004. A multi-year record of optical properties in the Gulf of Maine: I.  Spatial and temporal  variability.  Progress in Oceanography. 63: 57-98.
  • Knobelspiesse, K.D., C. Pietras, G.S. Fargion, M. Wang, R. Frouin, M.A. Miller, A. Subramaniam and W.M. Balch. 2004. Maritime aerosol optical properties measured by handheld sun photometers. Remote Sensing of Environment. 93:87-106.


  • Vaillancourt, R.D., C.W. Brown, R.R.L. Guillard, W. M. Balch. 2003.  Light backscattering by phytoplankton algae and a heterotrophic bacterium measured with a multi-wavelength, fixed-angle backscattering meter.  Journal of Plankton Research. 26: 191-212.
  • Broerse, A.T.C., Tyrell, T., Young, J. R., Poulton, A. J., Merico, A. and W. M. Balch.  2003.  The cause of bright waters in the Bering Sea in winter.  Continental and Shelf Research. 23:  1579-1596.


  • Balch, W.M., Vaughn, J.M., Novotny, J.F., Drapeau, D.T., Goes, J.I., Lapierre, J.M., Scally, E, Vining, C.L., Ashe, A., and Vaughn, J.M. Jr.  2002. Fundamental changes in light scattering associated with infection of marine bacteria by bacteriophage.  Limnology and Oceanography. 47(5): 1554-1561.
  • Campbell, J.W., D. Antoine, R. Armstrong, K. Arrigo, W. Balch, R. Barber, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, J. Bishop, M.-E. Carr, W. Esaias, P. Falkowski, N. Hoepffner, R. Iverson, D. Kiefer, S. Lohrenz, J. Marra, A. Morel, J. Ryan, V. Vedernikov, K. Waters, C. Yentsch, and J. Yoder.   2002.  Comparison of algorithms for estimating ocean primary productivity from surface chlorophyll, temperature, and irradiance. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16(3), 10.1029 / 2001GB001444.


  • Goes, J.I., H.R. Gomes, A. Limsakul, W. M. Balch, T. Saino.  2001. El Nino related interannual variations in biological production in the North Pacific as evidenced by satellite and ship data.  Progress in Oceanography  49: 211-224.
  • Balch, W. M., D. Drapeau, J. Fritz, B. Bowler, and J. Nolan.  2001.  Optical backscattering in the Arabian Sea- Continuous underway measurements of particulate inorganic and organic carbon. Deep Sea Research I. 48: 2423-2452.
  • Gordon, H. R., G. C. Boynton, W. M. Balch, S. B. Groom, D. S. Harbour , and T. J. Smyth. 2001. Retrieval of Coccolithophore Calcite Concentration from SeaWiFS Imagery. Geophysical Research Letters, 28: 1587-1590.


  • Balch, W.M.,  Vaughn, J., Novotny, J., D. T. Drapeau,  R.D. Vaillancourt, J. Lapierre,  and  A. Ashe,  2000.  Light scattering by viral suspensions. Limnology and Oceanography. 45:492-498.
  • Vaillancourt, R. D. and W. M.  Balch.  2000.  Size distribution of coastal sub-micron particles determined by flow, field flow fractionation. Limnology and Oceanography. 45: 485-492.
  • Graziano, L., W. Balch, D. Drapeau, B.Bowler, and S. Dunford.  2000.  Organic and inorganic carbon production in the Gulf of Maine. Continental and Shelf Research. 20: 685-705.
  • Balch, W. M., D. Drapeau, and J. Fritz.   2000.  Monsoonal forcing of calcification in the Arabian Sea.  Deep Sea Research II, 47: 1301-1333.


  • Milliman, J., P.J. Troy, W. Balch, A.K. Adams, Y.-H. Li, and F.T.  MacKenzie . 1999. Biologically-mediated dissolution of calcium carbonate above the chemical lysocline?  Deep-Sea Research I.  46: 1653-1669.
  • Balch, William M., David T. Drapeau,  Terry L. Cucci, and Robert D. Vaillancourt, Katherine A. Kilpatrick, Jennifer J. Fritz.  1999.  Optical backscattering by calcifying algae-Separating the contribution by particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions.  Journal of Geophysical Research. 104: 1541-1558.


  • Esaias, W. E., M. R. Abbott, O. W. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. Minnett.  1998.  An overview of MODIS Capabilities for Ocean Science Observations.   IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, EOS-AM Special Issue.  36(4): 1250-1265.
  • Voss, K., W. M. Balch, and K. A. Kilpatrick.  1998.  Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths. Limnology and Oceanography. 43: 870-876.


  • Archer, D., J. Aiken, W. M.  Balch, R. Barber, J. Dunne, P Flament, W. Gardner, C. Garside, C. Goyet, E. Johnson, D. Kirchman, M. McPhaden, J. Newton, E. Peltzer, L. Welling, J. White, J. Yoder.  1997.  A Meeting Place of Great Ocean Currents: Shipboard Observations of a Convergent Front at 2o N in the Pacific .  Deep-Sea Research II,  44: 1827-1849.  
  • Balch, W. M., B. Bowler, and C.F. Byrne.  1997.  Sea surface temperature gradients, baroclinicity, and  vegetation gradients in the sea.  Journal of Plankton Research.  19: 1829-1858.


  • Balch, W. M., J. J. Fritz, and E. Fernandez.  1996.  Decoupling of calcification and photosynthesis in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi  under steady-state light-limited growth.  Marine Ecology Progress Series.  142: 87-97.
  • Balch, W. M., K. A. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan and C. Trees.  1996.   The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central north Atlantic  I- Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution.   Limnology and Oceanography41: 1669-1683.
  • Balch, W. M., K. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. Harbour, and E. Fernandez.  1996.  The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central north Atlantic  II- Relating optics to coccolith concentration.   Limnology and Oceanography41: 1684-1696.
  • Fernandez, E., J. J. Fritz and W. M. Balch.  1996.  Growth-dependent chemical composition of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi  in light-limited chemostats.   Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology. 207: 149-160.
  • Fritz, J. J. and W. M. Balch.  1996.  A coccolith detachment rate determined from chemostat cultures of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyiJournal of Experimental Biology and Ecology. 207: 127-147.
  • Balch, W., M. and K. A. Kilpatrick.  1996.  Calcification rates in the equatorial Pacific along 140oW.   Deep Sea Research.  43: 971-993.
  • Fernandez, Emilio, E. Maranon and W. M. Balch.  1996. Intracellular carbon partitioning in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.   Journal of Marine Systems. 9: 57-66.


  • Balch, W. M.  1995.  Underwater bio-optics  -  Review of Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, Second EditionBulletin of Marine Science.  57: 297-299.


  • Fernandez, Emilio, W. M. Balch, E. Maranon, and P. M. Holligan.  1994.  High rates of lipid biosynthesis in cultured, mesocosm and coastal populations of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.  Marine Ecology Progress Series.  114: 13-22.
  • Yoder, J. A., S. G. Ackleson, R. T. Barber, P. Flament, and W. M. Balch.  1994.  A line in the sea.  Nature.  371: 689-692.
  • Balch, W.M.  and C.F. Byrne. 1994. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans.  99: 7555-7570.
  • Ackleson, S.G., W.M. Balch, and P.M. Holligan. 1994. The response of CZCS and SeaWIFS  Visible-band water-leaving radiance to particulate calcite and pigment concentration within Emiliania huxleyi blooms.  Journal of Geophysical Research -Oceans.  99: 7483-7499.
  • Townsend, D.W., M.D. Keller, P.M. Holligan, S.G. Ackleson, and W.M. Balch.  1994. Blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi with respect to hydrography in the Gulf of Maine.   Continental and Shelf Research14: 979-1000.
  • Paull, C.K., and W.M. Balch.   1994.  Oxygen isotopic disequilibrium in coccolith carbonate from phytoplankton blooms.  Deep Sea Research41: 223-228.


  • Holligan, P.M., E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W.M. Balch, P. Boyd and others.  1993. A geochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, in the North Atlantic Global Biogeochemical Cycles.  7(4): 879-900.
  • Matrai, P.A., W.M. Balch, D.J. Cooper, and E.S. Saltzman.  1993.  Ocean Color and Atmospheric DMS: on their Mesoscale Variability.  Journal of Geophysical Research.  98 (D12): 23,469-23,476.
  • Balch, W.M., K.A. Kilpatrick, and P.M. Holligan.  1993.  Coccolith formation and detachment by Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae).  Journal of Phycology.  29: 566-575.
  • Balch, W.M.  1993.  Sophisticated models of primary production: Performance versus complexity- Reply to Platt and Sathyendranath.  Journal of Geophysical Research. 98: 16585-16587.


  • Balch, W. M. and K. A. Kilpatrick.  1992.  Particulate reflectance measurements of phytoplankton.  Journal of Plankton Research14:721-735.
  • Balch, W. M., R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain and W. Esais.  1992.  The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity—use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms.  Journal of Geophysical Research.  97:2279-2293.
  • Balch, W. M., P. M. Holligan and K. A. Kilpatrick.  1992.  Calcification, photosynthesis and growth of the bloom - forming coccolithophore.  Emiliania huxleyiContinental and Shelf Research12:1353-1374.


  • Balch, W. M., P. M. Holligan, S. Ackleson, and K. Voss.  1991.  Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine.  Limnology and Oceanography36:629-643.


  • Weiler, C. S., W. M. Balch, S. W. Shisholm, J. J. Cullen, W. G. Harrison, P. A. Matrai, M. M. McCarthy, J. R. Nelson, M. J. Perry.  1990.  Richard W. Eppley's contributions to phytoplankton physiology and biological oceanography.  Oceanography.  3 (2): 42-46.


  • Balch, W. M., M. Abbott, R. W. Eppley, and F. M. H. Reid. 1989. Bias in satellite-derived pigment measurements due to coccolithophorids and dinoflagellates.  Journal of Plankton Research.  11:575-581.
  • Balch, W. M., R. W. Eppley, and M. Abbott.  1989.  Remote sensing of primary production I. a comparison of empirical and semi-analytical algorithms.  Deep Sea Research.  36:281-295.
  • Balch, W. M., R. W. Eppley, and M. Abbott.  1989.  Remote sensing of primary production II. introduction of a semi-analytical algorithm.  Deep Sea Research.  36: 1201-1217.


  • Ackleson, S., W. M. Balch and P. M. Holligan.  1988.  White waters of the Gulf of Maine.  Oceanography.  1: 18-22.


  • Balch, W. M.  1987.  Studies of nitrate transport of marine phytoplankton using 36Cl-ClO3 as a transport analogue.  I. Physiological findings.  Journal of Phycology.  23:107-118.
  • Balch, W. M., C. Garside, and E. Renger.  1987.  Studies of nitrate transport of marine phytoplankton using 36Cl-ClO3 as a transport analogue.  Field observations.  Deep-Sea Research II.  34:221-236.


  • Balch, W. M.  1986.  Exploring the mechanism of ammonium uptake in marine phytoplankton with an ammonium analogue, methylamine.  Marine Biology. 92:163-171.


  • Balch, W. M.  1985.  The effect of light of methylamine uptake by phytoplankton.  Limnology and Oceanography.  30:665-674.


  • Holligan, P. M., W. M. Balch, and C. M. Yentsch.  1984.  Significance of subsurface chlorophyll, nitrate, and ammonium maxima in relation to the supply of nitrogen for phytoplankton growth in stratified waters of the Gulf of Maine.  Journal of Marine Research.  42:1051-1073.
  • Balch, W. M. and F. T. Haxo.  1984.  Spectral properties of Noctiluca miliaris Suriray, a heterotrophic dinoflagellate.  Journal of Plankton Research. 6:515-525.


  • Townsend, D. W., C. M. Yentsch, C. E. Parker, W. M. Balch, and E. D. True.  1983.  An island mixing effect in the coastal Gulf of Maine.  Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen. 36:347-356.
  • Balch, W. M., P. C. Reid, and S. C. Surrey-Gent.  1983.  Spatial and temporal variability of dinoflagellate cyst abundance in a tidal estuary.   Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.  40:244-261.


  • Balch, W.M.  1981.  An apparent lunar cycle of phytoplankton blooms and community succession in the Gulf of Maine.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.  55:65-77.


  • Yentsch, C. M. and W. M. Balch.  1975.  Lack of secondary intoxification by red tide poison in the American lobster, Homarus americanusEnvironmental Letters.  9:246-254.